Av Timothy Tore Hebb.
Varje år publicerar brittiska Open University en översikt över tio nya och ganska nya, innovativa, pedagogiska metoder. Det är fokus på hur teknologi kan göra det.
Rapporten heter ”Innovating Pedagogy 2021 — Exploring New Forms of Teaching, Learning and Assessment, to Guide Educators and Policy Makers”.
Den senaste kom ut 2021 och var den nionde i ordningen. När rapporten för 2022 publiceras kommer resultaten i den publiceras här också. Den här är 55 sidor och det går att ladda ner den i slutet.
När det gäller elever i socioekonomiskt utsatta områden som är svårmotiverade kan eventuellt metod nummer sex vara intressant i vissa fall.
Den utgår ifrån att använda ett narrativ som utgår ifrån hip hop. Då används hip hop som en kulturell rörelse, ett konstnärligt uttryck, ett sätt att ta in kunskap, en metod för att kommunicera.
Elever kan till exempel skriva texter samt göra konst och videor. Då kan mobilerna komma till nyttig användning.
Och nummer åtta som visar hur unga med exempelvis olika socioekonomiska bakgrunder kan mötas via datorn med alla positiva effekter det kan ge.
För bästa förståelse citeras den tydliga sammanfattningen av de tio metoderna.
1 Positive mental states for enjoyable and effective learning
”Teaching tips for creating memorable moments include talking about students’ interests, asking challenging questions and accepting that all students are different. Technology-enhanced learning environments can be designed to create opportunities for best learning moments – for example, through use of mobile devices, games-based learning and immersive experiences, and through using data from learning analytics.
New ways of capturing best learning moments can support reflection on learning and improving the design of learning technology. Best learning moments can also be opportunities for ‘teachable moments’, which are unplanned opportunities that arise when a teacher senses that students are engaged and ready to absorb some insights, such as a general point from a shared experience.”
2 Extending learning with augmented and virtual reality
”They (som virtuella verkligheter via datorn och mobilen) also open up opportunities that are not available in the classroom, such as exploring places that would be difficult, dangerous or impossible to visit for a learner – the surface of Mars or the inside of a volcano, for example. With AR and VR, students can interact and work together, manipulating virtual objects and moving around the setting together. These ways of engaging can support them in understanding concepts, practising skills and performing various tasks or procedures.”
”Small-scale use of enriched reality is within reach for learners with access to a suitable smartphone and a good internet connection.”
3 Reflecting on attitude to improve wellbeing and learning
”Gratitude involves the acknowledgement of what people have or receive and the conscious action of wanting to give back in some ways. When applied in an academic context, gratitude can help students to improve student–teacher and student–student relationships; it can help them to be more aware of their learning environment and increase understanding and focus on their studies.
It can also improve mental health and wellbeing of both students and teachers – for example, students improve their ability to remain resilient while facing difficulties in learning. One practical approach to implementing gratitude as a pedagogy involves asking teachers and students to examine their attitude before starting their teaching or learning and during learning activities.
A more detailed reflection can bring awareness of any negative attitudes towards certain topics or learning activities. These are then analysed and replaced by elements of gratitude. Students have reported being more engaged and less distracted, having great motivation for learning, and having increased confidence and a deeper understanding of concepts.
4 Using educational dialogues to improve learning efficiency
“Using a text-based or voice-based conversational interface to communicate with the user, chatbots can answer and ask questions, guide learners and assist in problem solving. This means that, when a teacher is not available or cannot help, learners are still able to make some progress.
Increasingly, chatbots use artificial intelligence techniques to understand human languages, voices, body language and behaviours, and to make sense of patterns in languages or behaviours. Chatbots bring new opportunities, such as immediate problem diagnosis and interventions.
They can provide learners with support tailored to their needs – for example, constructing an immersive learning environment, analysing requirements and initiating supportive conversation. Studies suggest that learners might express themselves more freely with chatbots as they are not interacting with humans who might judge them.”
5 Finding fairer ways to improve learning for all
“Developing educational opportunities that are inclusive requires thinking not only about equality in opportunities to access education but also about equity, whereby each student can achieve similar positive outcomes, regardless of their background and characteristics such as gender, disability or ethnicity.
Finding fairer ways to improve learning for all requires consideration of barriers at many levels, from personal to cultural and societal. Strategies in equity- oriented pedagogy include listening to students and adapting teaching, recognising uneven impacts of use of educational technology, awareness of how assessment practices can be unfair and drawing on pedagogical frameworks such as Universal Design for Learning (UDL).
UDL seeks to accommodate individual learning differences and provides principles of curriculum design that focus on offering students multiple means of engagement, representation (e.g. alternative formats) and expression or action. New technology and increased online and hybrid learning provide opportunities for increasing personalisation and co-creation of learning, although possible inequitable effects of technology must be considered.”
6 Culturally relevant learning through hip-hop
”Hip-hop based education focuses on the use of hip-hop as a musical genre, culture and art movement, both inside and outside a traditional school setting. It uses elements such as rap music texts, videos, graffiti and breakdancing in curricula and in teaching and learning to provide a culturally appropriate approach that can empower marginalised groups of learners.
Educators, scholars and students involved in hip-hop education challenge traditional educational systems and structures and attach particular value to the power of youth voice, culture and agency. Hip-hop based education requires critical reflection to ensure that both teachers and students maintain an authentic learning experience and a critical perspective.”
7 Teachers and students creating materials and curricula
”The co-creation of teaching and learning materials by teachers and students can lead to greater empowerment of students and better relationships. Students can share responsibility with teachers for designing materials and activities as well as assessments.
They can co-create new content and experiences or amend existing ones. The approach resembles ‘communities of practice’, whereby a group of people come together, linked by a common interest, and meet regularly in order to find ways of improving their practice. As students participate in the co-creation activities, they negotiate with others and form and evolve their identities.”
8 Using communication tools for collaborative language learning
Den här pedagogiska metoden kan användas för att förbättra invandrade elevers svenskakunskaper. Ett sätt för skolor med många elever med svensk bakgrund att stödja elever med utländsk bakgrund att lära sig språket svenska och andra färdigheter som krävs för verklig integration i Sverige.
”Learning a second language can bring many advantages, such as an increased likelihood of attaining further education, work and professional collaboration. The availability of free-to-use online communication tools has created new opportunities for authentic contexts for language learning and cultural learning, in the form of telecollaboration projects that connect learners in different locations.
Telecollaboration enables a student to tutor another in their first language, while also learning their collaboration partner’s language as part of the same exchange. Such projects may be formally supported within an educational institution or informal. Telecollaboration has been found to improve learners’ communication skills, expand their vocabulary and grammar knowledge, and help them to appreciate other cultures and to use their second language accurately and appropriately.”
9 Using evidence from research to inform teaching
”Evidence-based teaching is about using research evidence to inform decisions about the best pedagogical approach to apply in a given domain. These decisions may relate to which teaching strategy to adopt to be able to teach a specific topic, capturing the progress students make over time, or assessing the effectiveness of one’s teaching.
The idea originates from medicine, where practitioners often make use of evidence from research and experimental studies which they combine with information about their patients to make decisions about managing their health.
Evidence-based teaching examines evidence from research to determine whether there are proven benefits from a given pedagogical approach, or the conditions under which an approach will work.
For example, robust evidence now exists that supports the provision of good-quality feedback, the development of skills that can help students understand how they learn, and giving homework to students.”
10 Using authentic language data to support language teaching and learning
”A large collection of texts or other samples of naturally occurring language – for example, a collection of newspaper articles across several decades or a collection of informal conversations – is known as a corpus.
Language teachers, students and developers of teaching materials may access a corpus to obtain authentic linguistic data and devise corpus-based tasks for teaching and learning.
Corpus-based pedagogy has received attention in recent years as a result of advances in computing science that facilitate extraction of information from a corpus – for example, to find out how certain words are used.
Learners can access online corpora with or without the help of their teachers, and they can analyse their own use of language by comparing their linguistic choices with the patterns and structures retrieved from a corpus.
The retrieval and analysis of language use in context thus provides learners with a research-based understanding of language forms and functions.”